Accomplishments

WHEAT

HD 2967 (Pusa Sindhu Ganga) : The genotype HD 2967 identified by 48th All India  Wheat and Barley Research Workers Meet held at IAREI, New Delhi for release in two zones viz., NWPZ & NEPZ for timely sown irrigated conditions.  The genotype developed from a cross ALD/COC//URESH/HD 2160m/HD 2278 produced an average grain yield of 5.04t/ha in NWPZ and 4.54t/ha in NEPZ in all India coordinated trials. The genotype has amber colored, hard textured, ovate shaped grain with 40 gm. test weight and 12.7% protein content. The variety takes an average of 143 days and 129 days to mature in NWPZ and NEPZ respectively. The variety possesses diversified genes other than 1B/1R and showed high degree of resistance to leaf rust as well as of 78S84 and 46S119 races of yellow rust. The variety also showed lower incidence of leaf blight, Karnal bunt and flag smut than the checks. The variety has high zinc, copper and manganese content, sedimentation value and suitable for bread and chapati

HD 2967 (Pusa Sindhu Ganga)

 

 HD 2985 (Pusa Basant): HD 2985 is recommended for commercial cultivation under late sown conditions of north eastern Plains Zone. The variety has a genetic potential of 51.4 q/ha and average yield of 37.4 q/ha under late sown conditions of north eastern plains zone. HD 2985 yielded 12.02% higher than the most popular variety of the region i.e., HUW 234.  It has shown superior performance under late as well as very late sown conditions in the northeastern zone.  Apart being leaf rust resistant, the variety was least sensitive to very late-sown conditions also. The variety possesses the usable and most practical type of disease resistance viz., the adult plant resistance (APR) to leaf rust because of the presence of the gene Lr13 and other minor genes. The protein content, grain appearance, hectoliter weight and sedimentation value is comparable with that of all the checks and the qualifying varieties. This variety has comparable or better values of chapati quality, bread loaf volume, bread quality, extraction rate, grain hardness index, biscuit diameter and phenol test values in comparison to the checks and the qualifying varieties..

HD 2985 (Pusa Basant)

 

HD 2987 (Pusa Bahar): HD 2987 is recommended for commercial cultivation under rainfed and restricted irrigated conditions of peninsular zone. The variety has a genetic potential of 32.2 q/ha and average yield of 18 q/ha under rainfed conditions and genetic potential of 38.6 q/ha and average yield of 32.5 q/ha under restricted irrigated condition. The variety   has given higher yield ranging from 7.0 to 22.2 % in restricted irrigation and 2.05 to 17.09% in rainfed trials over the checks in all the three years of testing.   It has shown very consistent performance over the years and locations in both the trials (rainfed and restricted irrigation).

The adult plant resistance against brown and black rusts observed in HD 2987 is due to minor genes and therefore likely to be durable. It has also shown high 1000 grain weight under all the irrigation levels, besides having high ear head per m2 and grains per ear. It has all the desirable high molecular weight (HMW) sub-units for best bread making ability as the Glu-1 score is perfect 10/10 indicating a very good bread quality. The proposed variety has high Iron, copper, manganese and Zinc content in comparison to all checks. The   variety has best chapatti quality score (8.14) in comparison to the checks and qualifying varieties. The   variety is best in extraction rate (72.2) and gluten index (86) as compared to the checks.

HD 2987 (Pusa Bahar)

 

HD 3043 (Pusa Chaitanya): The variety HD 3043 has given an average yield of 42.8 q/ha with a genetic potential of 66.0 q/ha under restricted irrigated conditions of North Western Plains zone over three years of testing. The   variety has given significantly higher yield ranging from 7.8 to 35.4 % in three years of testing against the checks C 306, PBW 175, PBW 396 & WH 1080.  In 15 trials, the  variety HD 3043 has appeared 7 times in the first non-significant group as compared to the check varieties C 306   (0/13), PBW 175(1/15), PBW 396 (3/13) and WH 1080 (5/13). It has shown very consistent performance over the years and locations.  HD 3043 has shown a high level of resistance against stripe rusts and leaf rust in comparison to the checks C 306, PBW 175, PBW 396 & WH 1080. The adult plant resistance against brown and yellow rusts of HD 3043 has mainly been due to minor genes and therefore likely to be durable. The variety HD 3043 had least flag smut, Karnal bunt, foot rot as compared to all the checks and qualifying variety PBW 644. It has the best HMW sub-units combination for bread making with Glu-1 score, 8/10. The proposed variety has the higher value of bread loaf volume (cc), bread quality score. The variety therefore, may find favor with bread making industries. 

HD 3043(Pusa Chaitanya)

 

HD3086 (Pusa Gautami) released for timely sown irrigated conditions of North Western Plains Zone (NWPZ) of the country. HD 3086 has average yield of 5.46 t/ha with yield potential of 7.1 t/ha under timely sown irrigated conditions.  It is resistant to yellow rust and brown rust.    This thermo tolerant variety has high protein content (12.5%), sedimentation value (37ml), Glu-1 Score (10/10) and extraction rate (70.5%) suitable for  bread making.

HD3086 (Pusa Gautami)

 

HD-3090 (Pusa Amulya), an early maturing (101 days), semi-dwarf (80 cm), thermo-tolerant wheat variety with an average yield of 42.1 q/ha and genetic potential of 63.1 q/ha was released for Peninsular Zone for cultivation under late sown, irrigated conditions. The variety has shown superior quality parameters for most of the quality traits and end-use for bread and chapatti making with protein content of 13.3 percent. This variety possesses high degree of resistance against leaf and stem rusts at seedling as well as at adult plant stage which will help in management of rust diseases by minimizing the incidence in this otherwise sensitive epidemiological zone.

HD-3090 (Pusa  Amulya)

 

HD 3118 (Pusa Vatsala):  A High yielding variety with an average yield of  3.95 t/ha  and potential yield of  6.64 t/ha  under  late sown irrigated conditions of  North Eastern Plains zone was  released by  Central Sub-Committee on Crop Standards, Notification and Release of  Varieties  for Agricultural Crops. HD 3118 is  resistant to  stripe and leaf rusts and moderately resistance to  foliar blight and Foot rot. It has the desirable Glu-1 score ( 8/10), higher bread loaf volume (cc), bread quality score, protein content, grain appearance and other quality traits and suitable for  bread making.

HD 3118 (Pusa  Vatsala)

 

HI 8737 (`Pusa Anmol): A durum wheat developed at Regional station, Indore was released for timely sown irrigated conditions of Central Zone by Central Sub-Committee on Crop Standards, Notification and Release of Varieties of Agricultural Crops. The variety gave an average yield of 5.34t/ha with potential yield 6.7 t/ha. and is rich in β-carotene and micronutrients like iron and zinc It showed good levels of resistance to Karnal bunt also.

HI 8737 (`Pusa Anmol)

 

Pusa Kiran(HS 542): A High yielding bread wheat variety with an average yield of 3.29 t/ha and potential yield of 6.03 t/ha  under early sown rainfed conditions of North Hills Zone was released by Central Sub-Committee on Crop Standards, Notification and Release of Varieties for Agricultural Crops. The variety is resistant to stripe and leaf rust and also possesses superior chapatti making quality.

Pusa Kiran(HS 542)

 

Nilgiri Khapli (HW 1098): A high yielding, disease resistant, semi dwarf dicoccum wheat variety developed at Regional station, Wellingtonwas released for timely sown irrigated conditions to all the dicocum growing area of country by Central Sub-Committee on Crop Standards, Notification and Release of Varieties of Agricultural Crops. The variety gave an average yield of 4.55 t/ha with potential yield 4.78 t/ha. It showed high degree of adult plant resistance to all the three rusts. It has high protein (16.5%), higher grain weight ( 46.5 g) and high β-carotene (3.39ppm).

Nilgiri Khapli (HW 1098)

 

HDCSW18: First wheat variety of the country specifically bred for conservation agriculture (CA) was released by SVRC for irrigated early sown conditions for NCR region. It gave an average grain yield of 6.28t/ha under conservation agriculture and have genetic potential of more than 7 t/ha. It possesses tolerance to high temperature at seedling stage and resistance to brown rust. It showed lower incidence of Karnal bunt.

HDCSW18

 

HD 3117: A high yielding wheat variety was released by SVRC for irrigated late sown conditions for NCR region.  The variety produce an average grain yield of 4.7t /ha (tilled conditions) and 4.79 t/ha under conservation agriculture. It showed resistance to brown and yellow rusts and tolerant to Karnal bunt. It has protein 11.7 percent protein content.

HD 3117

 

HD 4728: A semi-dwarf (89 cm), high tillering durum wheat variety with an average yield of 5.42 t/ha and genetic potential of more than 6.5 t/ha under timely sown was identified for release for irrigated conditions of Central Zone. HD 4728 with lustrous and bold grains (48.3g/1000 kernels), matures in 120 days, and possesses resistance to both stem and leaf rusts. Having at par quality with the existing checks it had the least yellow berry incidence.

HD 4728

 

HS 562:  A high yielding wheat variety HS 562 was identified for release for timely sown rainfed and irrigated conditions of Northern Hill Zone. HS 562 produced an average grain yield of 3.6 t/ha under rainfed conditions and 5.27 t/ha under irrigated condition. It has shown good levels of field resistance to leaf and stripe rusts. The variety has good chapatti and bread making qualities and also rich in micronutrients like Fe (38.4ppm) and zinc (34.5ppm).

HS 562

 

RICE

Pusa Basmati 1509: Pusa Basmati 1509 (IET 21960) is high yielding Basmati rice variety with seed to seed maturity of 120 days, non-lodging and non-shattering habit with grain and cooking quality superior to Pusa Basmati 1121. This variety has been released by the Central Sub-Committee on Crop Standards, Notification and Release of Varieties for Agricultural Crops, Government of India vide notification number S.O 2817(E) dated 19th September 2013 for commercial cultivation in the Basmati growing regions of Uttar Pradesh and Delhi. It  offers several advantages over other Basmati rice varieties in the country such as 25-30 days earliness compared to popular Basmati rice variety Pusa Basmati 1121, can help saving upto 5-6 irrigations (about 33% saving of irrigation water) and  being short statured  this variety produces almost half biomass and thus will reduce environmental pollution due to burning of paddy straw.

Pusa Basmati 1509

 

Pusa 1612 (Pusa Sugandh 6): Pusa 1612-07-6-5 (IET 22290), is blast resistant near-isogenic line of Pusa Sugandh 5 developed through marker assisted breeding wherein two genes namely, Piz5 and Pi54 conferring resistance to blast disease have been pyramided in the genetic background of Pusa Sugandh 5, an extra-long slender grain aromatic rice variety widely cultivated in rice –potato cropping system. This variety have been released by the Central Sub-Committee on Crop Standards, Notification and Release of Varieties for Agricultural Crops, Government of India vide notification number S.O 2817(E) dated 19th September 2013 for commercial cultivation in the Basmati growing regions of Punjab, Haryana, Jammu& Kashmir and Delhi.

Pusa 1612 (Pusa Sugandh 6)

 

Pusa 1592 a long slender grain aromatic rice variety inbuilt resistance to bacterial blight disease: ‘Pusa 1592’, is a MAS derived long slender grain aromatic rice variety inbuilt resistance to bacterial blight disease governed by xa13 and Xa21 have been identified for release. Pusa 1592 produces an average yield of 4.73 t/ ha within in 120-125 days and has been identified for the Region II (Punjab, Haryana, Delhi and Jammu & Kashmir) of the Basmati growing region. It is an improved version of Pusa Sugandh 5, which is widely cultivated in rice-potato cropping system over an area of 0.2 million ha the Basmati growing region of western UP and Haryana.

Pusa 1592

 

Pusa Basmati 1609 – the first MAS derived neck blast resistant Basmati rice variety: Pusa Basmati 1609 (Pusa 1609-09-9-4; IET 22778) is a MAS derived blast resistant Basmati rice variety having genes Piz5 and Pi54 with seed to seed maturity of only 120 days and average yield of 4.6 t/ ha. It recorded average yield advantage of 9%, 52.8% and 13.5% over Pusa Basmati 1121, Taraori Basmati and Pusa Basmati 1, respectively and more than 5% yield advantage over the qualifying varieties in the AICRIP trials over three years of testing. It has semi-dwarf stature and non-lodging habit, reduced duration, higher yield and superior grain and cooking quality traits and most importantly its resistance to neck blast and moderate resistance to leaf blast, Pusa 1609-09-9-4 (IET 22778) has been identified for release in the Basmati growing regions of the Uttar Pradesh, National Capital Region of Delhi, Uttarakhand and Punjab.

Pusa Basmati 1609

 

PEARLMILLET

Pusa Composite 612, an early maturing and fast growing pearl millet composite variety, which is highly resistant to downy mildew disease and suitable for moisture stress condition, was identified for release during the All India Coordinated Pearl Millet Improvent Programme workshop held at MPKV, Rahuri during 28th to 30th April, 2009 and notified by the Central Sub-Committee on Crop Standards, Notification and Release of Varieties for Agricultural Crops during March 2010. It is a high yielding composite variety, which had out yielded the popular checks ICMV 221 by +19.50 %, ICTP 8203 by +11.63 %, ICMV155 by +11.03% and Raj.171 by +15.96 %. It is resistant to downy mildew disease and gave consistent performance over locations and years for grain yield in national trails. It is highly suitable for rain-fed and irrigated conditions.

Pusa Composite 612

 

Pusa composite 701 is a high yielding dual purpose pearl millet variety identified for A zone comprising regions in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Haryana, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Delhi. It is having a grain yield of 2313 kg/ha which was 6.01 to 25.5 % higher than the over four checks, Raj 171 (2151 kg/ha) by 7.49 %, Pusa composite 383 (2185 kg/ha) by 6.01 %, JBV 2 (2036 kg/ha) by 13.87 % and ICMV 221 (1843 kg/ha) by 25.55 %. It is highly resistant to downy mildew and blast diseases. This variety is developed through controlled pollination followed by mass selection involving 7 high yielding, early maturing, downy mildew and blast resistant lines.

 

CHICKPEA

Pusa 5023 (Pusa Shaktiman): Pusa 5023 an extra large seeded kabuli type was released in 2012 for cultivation in rainfed and irrigated areas of Delhi and adjoining states in northern India. It is the first extra-large seeded kabuli variety released in India with 100-seed weight 40g and average yield 20 q/ha. It is moderately resistant to soil borne diseases.The seed quality is excellent for cooking, table and culinary purposes.

Pusa 5023 (Pusa Shaktiman)

 

Pusa 5028 (Pusa Bheema) :  It was released in 2012 for Delhi and NCR region. In Desi chickpea types no variety of extra-large seeded types has been released in the world which has 100-seed weight more than 40g. Variety Pusa 5028 is the first Desi extra-large seeded variety in India having 100-seed weight more than 40g. The net profit with the cultivation of this variety will be significantly higher than other Desi varieties. This variety is suitable for cultivation in rainfed and irrigated areas of Delhi and adjoining states in northern India. It is moderatly resistant to soil borne diseases. Seeds of Pusa 5028 are attractive and light brown in colour. The seed quality is excellent for cooking, table and culinary purposes.

Pusa 5028 (Pusa Bheema)

 

Pusa 2085: A Large seeded kabuli chickpea variety Pusa 2085

Pusa 2085 is a large seeded kabuli chickpea variety with 100 seed weight of 36 g and its average yield is 20 q/ha with a genetic yield potential of more than 30 q/ha. It has multiple disease resistance against dry root rot and stunt; moderately resistant to wilt and botrytis gray mold and tolerant to collar rot.Pusa 2085 has significantly out yielded all the check varieties over the years and has a high protein % and hydration capacity. The seeds are beige coloured, uniform, attractive and shinning.Pusa 2085 has been developed using multiple hybridization having diverse parents for wider genetic base, stability and adaptability.

Pusa 2085: A Large seeded kabuli chickpea variety Pusa 2085

 

Green seeded chickpea variety ‘Pusa Green 112’

Green seeded chickpeas are in great great demand in urban areas for culinary and table purposes. Pusa Green is a high yielding desi green seeded chickpea variety having high resistance to Fusariumwilt and drought. Its average yield is 23 q/ha and has a yield potential of 27 q/ha. Seeds are dark green, uniform and excellent for cooking and culinary purpose. It will be boon for marginal farmers as it has multiple stress resistance.

Green seeded chickpea variety ‘Pusa Green 112’

 

Pusa 3022, an extra-large seeded kabuli chickpea variety suitable for NWPZ comprising the states of Rajasthan, UP, Punjab and Haryana was identified for release. It was derived from the cross BG 1048 x BG 1082 following pedigree breeding method. It is a high yielding variety with an average grain yield of 1.8 t / ha which is 10.4 % higher than the best check. It consistently out yielded check varieties in all four years and showed stable yield performance over locations. Its duration is about 150 days and has 100-seed weight of 36-40 g.  It is moderately resistant to Fusarium wilt, dry root rot, Ascochyta blight and Botrytis gray mold. It has excellent grain quality.

Green seeded chickpea variety ‘Pusa Green 112’

 

MUNG BEAN

Pusa 0672 was notified by Central Varietal Release Committee for cultivation in North Hill Zone.Bold seed size (3.8-5.3 g/100 seed) with shining attractive seed and good cooking quality. Yield superiority of 33% over ML 5(in IVT, AVT I and AVT II trials), 47.8% over PDM 54 (in IVT), 14.97% over KM 2241 (in AVT II) and 101.64% over Pant M 6 (in AVT II)

Pusa 0672

 

BRASSICA

Pusa Mustard 22 (LET-17) [Gazette Notification No. 2458(E) 16.10.2008]: It is single zero (<2% erucic acid) variety of Indian mustard. Average seed yield of this variety is 20.7 q/ ha, whereas, potential seed yield is up to 27.5 q/ha. It is at par in maturity (142 days) to the conventional mustard varieties. Mean 1000-seeds weight of this variety is 3.6 g with 36.0% oil content. The variety has been released and notified for NCR, Delhi.

Pusa Mustard 22 ( LET-17)

 

Pusa Tarak (EJ-9912-13): It is an early maturing (100-120 days maturity) bold seeded (6.0 g/ 1000 seeds) variety of Indian mustard which has been released for September sowing in NCR Delhi. It has an average seed yield of 19.24 q/ ha. Mean oil content of this variety is 40%. This variety suitable for the multiple cropping system particularly during the period of September – December.

Pusa Tarak (EJ-9912-13)

 

Pusa Mustard 25 (NPJ-112) [Gazette Notification No. 211(E) 20.01.2010]: This variety is suitable for multiple cropping system between September (after harvest of Kharif crops)  to Mid December (upto sowing of Rabi  crops particularly wheat and vegetables) to have an additional crop and is a substitute of B. rapa cv. Toria (in toria’s traditional belt). Average seed yield of this variety is 14.7 q/ ha in 107 days. This variety has been released and notified for Zone-II (Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab, Delhi, Plains of J&K and HP, Western UP).

Pusa Mustard 25 (NPJ-112)

 

Pusa Mustard 26 (NPJ-113) [Gazette Notification No. 632 (E) dated 25.03.2011]: Suitable for late sown (November) conditions after harvest of cotton, rice and guar in the states of Haryana, Rajasthan, Punjab, Plains of J&K, Delhi and Western UP. Average maturity of this variety is 126 days with average yield of 16.04 q/ ha. Its seeds contain 37.6% oil. Tolerant to high temperatures and salinity to some extent. It is suitable for multiple cropping systems particularly in rice and cotton belts where the fields are generally vacated in November; farmers prefer to raise late sown mustard which performs well in one to two irrigations. It also suits well in areas where long duration guar varieties are grown and fields are vacated in November.

Pusa Mustard 26 (NPJ-113)

 

Pusa Mustard 27 (EJ-17)(Gazette Notification No. 632 (E) dated 25.03.2011): Recommended for zone-III comprising the states of U.P., M.P., Uttrakhand, Kota region of Rajasthan for early sown (September sowing) conditions. Average seed yield of this variety is 15.35 q/ha with 41.7% oil content in seeds. This variety matures in 118 days and is moderately tolerant to high temperatures at seedling as well as at maturity stage. It is suitable for multiple cropping system and can be successfully grown after harvest of Kharif crops (September) upto sowing of wheat, vegetables and Sugarcane (December-January) when fields generally remain vacant. This is a good substitute of Toria (in toria growing traditional belt) of this zone.

Pusa Mustard 27 (EJ-17)

 

Pusa Mustard 28 (NPJ-124) [Gazette Notification No. 486 (E) dated 16.03.2012]: Suitable for early sown (September), irrigated conditions in the states of Haryana, Rajasthan, Punjab, Plains of J&K, Delhi and Western UP. It matures is 107 days with average seed yield of 19.93 q/ ha. It’s per day productivity is as very high (18.63 kg/day/ha) in comparison to all released varieties. Its seeds contain 41.5% oil. It possesses seedling and grain filling stage high temperature tolerance. It fits well in multiple cropping system. An additional (catch) crop can be taken between kharifand rabi seasons in NWPZ when fields generally remain vacant between September (after harvest of Kharif crops) to Mid December (sowing of Rabi  crops particularly wheat, sugarcane and vegetables). It is a good  substitute of toria.

Pusa Mustard 27 (EJ-17)

 

Pusa Mustard 29 (LET-36) [Gazette Notification No. 2815(E) 19.09.2013]:  Pusa Mustard 29 is low erucic acid variety of Indian mustard proposed for North Western Plain Zone comprising the states of north and north-western Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab, Delhi, plains of Jammu Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh under irrigated conditions. Mean seed yield of LET-36 is 2169 kg/ ha, whereas, potential seed yield is 3005 kg/ha. 1000-seed weight of this variety is 3.93 g with 37.2% oil content. Moreover, it has bolder seed size compared to other four varieties of erucic acid notified earlier. It matures in 143 days. It possesses moderate tolerance to high temperature at seedling (low seedling mortality) and grain filling stage (less reduction in 1000-seed weight).

Pusa Mustard 29 (LET-36)

 

Pusa Mustard 30 (LES-43) [Gazette Notification No. 2815(E) 19.09.2013]: It is asingle zero (<2% erucic acid) variety of Indian mustard recommended for Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Madhya Pradesh and eastern Rajasthan. It gave an average seed yield is 18.24q/ ha with potential seed yield of  31.25 q/ha. It is medium maturing variety of Indian mustard which matures in 137 days and is about one week early to all released quality mustard varieties. Its seeds are dark brown in colour, medium in size (5.38 g/ 1000 seeds) with 37.7% average oil content across locations.

Pusa Mustard 30 (LES-43)

 

Pusa Double Zero Mustard-31: It is the first double zero (Erucic acid <2% and glucosinolates<30ppm) Indian mustard variety in the country. It has been released for timely sown irrigated conditions of National Capital Region of Delhi including Delhi and adjoining areas in the states of Haryana, Rajasthan and UP. Its mean seed yield is 2379 kg/ha in multi-location trials. It is a yellow seeded variety with 40.56% oil content and matures in 144 days. Improved oil and seed meal quality (Canola quality) makes this variety beneficial for farmers, traders and consumers.

Pusa Double Zero Mustard-31

 

SOYBEAN

DS 12-13 (Pusa 12) was identified for release in North Plain Zone (comprising states of Delhi, Haryana, Punjab, Uttrakhand, U.P. and Bihar) during 42nd annual group meeting of AICRP on Soybean held at Palampur, in March 2012. The variety has demonstrated significantly higher yield over the best check SL 688 (32.44%). DS 12-13 has resistance against yellow mosaic virus (YMV), Rhizoctonia Arial blight (RAB) and Bacterial Pustule (BP). It is moderately resistant to stem fly, and Defoliators. It  is a bold seeded variety having 100-seed weight of 10.53 grams. It has good seed longevity and high oil content (19.60%).

DS 12-13 (Pusa 12)

 

DS 2614 was identified for release in Delhi NCR region. The variety has demonstrated significantly higher yield over the best check SL 525 (8.9%). DS 12-13 has resistance against yellow mosaic virus (YMV), Rhizoctonia Arial blight (RAB) and Bacterial Pustule (BP). It is moderately resistant to stem fly, and Defoliators. DS 2614 is a medium-bold seeded variety having 100-seed weight of 9.93 grams. It has good seed longevity and high oil content (20.26%).

DS 2614

 

Significant achievements in basic and strategic research in various crops:

Transfer of useful genes from wild relatives of wheat:  Cytological analysis of Ae.markgrafii derivative ER9 and  Ae. speltoides derived line Sel.2427was undertaken and, chromosome number and cytological stability analyzed. ER9 showed normal chromosome pairing with 21 bivalents. Sel.2427 needed extensive cytological analysis in parents, F1 and F2 populations to understand the nature of cytological abnormalities. Genetic analysis of Ae.markgrafii derivative ER9 revealed a single dominant gene for leaf rust resistance at seedling stage. Work was initiated to reduce the alien segment size of Secalechromosome carrying Lr45 in translocation 2A.2RS-2RL. Nine nullisomic plants were identified from 5B monosomic plants carrying Lr45 and backcrossed with bread wheat. In an effort to transfer novel rust resistance genes from Secale cereal, Ae.geneculata, Ae.speltoides, and T.spelta , homozygous BC3F3 families were identified. Interspecific hybridization is under progress to transfer useful genes from T.timopheevii, T.monococcum and Ae.speltoides also. Seed of 13 derivatives of T.militinae was multiplied to evaluate them for abiotic stresses also.

Molecular mapping of grain micronutrient accumulation trait: A biparental mapping population (WH542/ TriticumdicocconPI94624/Aegilopssqarrosa (409)//BCN) consisting of 286 RILs was phenotyped for grain micronutrients in six  environments. The grain Zn and Fe concentration traits were significantly associated (r2= 0.67). There was significant GXE interaction for grain zinc concentration. The traits of Zn and Fe concentration were found to be controlled by QTLs. Out of the 910 SSRs screened, only 138 showed a Mendelian segregation in the sub-set of 286 RILs (Table 1& Fig. 2))

Molecular mapping of grain micronutrient accumulation trait

 

Incorporation of herbicide tolerance trait into Basmati and Non-Basmati rice varieties: An EMS (Ethyl methane sulfonic acid) induced mutant line of rice mega variety Nagina22 tolerant to the herbicide Imazethapyr was identified. The gene Als (Acetolactate Synthase) on chromosome 2 has been found responsible for herbicide tolerance and marker assisted backcross breeding is being employed to incorporate the Als gene into the elite rice varieties namely, Pusa Basmati 1121 and Pusa Basmati 1509.

Incorporation of herbicide tolerance trait into Basmati and Non-Basmati rice varieties

 

Developing multiple biotic stress resistance in Basmati rice varieties: Advanced generation backcross derived lines possessing both bacterial blight (xa13+Xa21) and blast (Pi2+Pi54) resistance genes in the genetic background of Pusa Basmati 1121 and Pusa Basmati 6 have been generated.

 

Genetic analysis of resistance to Bakanae disease

The genetic analysis of resistance to Bakanae disease of rice caused by Fusarium fujikuroi was carried out in the cross between the highly susceptible variety Pusa Basmati 1121 and resistant genotype Pusa 1342 showed that the resistance to Bakanae is governed by a single recessive gene.

Genetic analysis of resistance to Bakanae disease

 

Marker assisted incorporation of drought tolerance in rice varieties: Marker assisted backcross breeding was carried to incorporate the QTLs governing drought tolerance such as qDTY1.1 from N22 and qDTY3.1 from IR81896-B-B-142 into the genetic background of Pusa Basmati 1 and Pusa 44, respectively. A total of six BC3F3 families homozygous for qDTY1.1 and 36 families homozygous for qDTY3.1in the genetic background of Pusa 44 have been identified.

Marker assisted incorporation of drought tolerance in rice varieties

 

Identification of candidate genes for waterlogging stress tolerance in maize:Two subtropical maize inbred lines, CML425 (tolerant to waterlogging stress) and V372 (susceptible to waterlogging stress) were used for gene expression profiling under waterlogging stress. Eight candidate genes were selected – Cortical cell-delineating protein precursor, CDPK, protein kinase family protein, XET (Xyloglucanendotransglycosylase), IAA13 auxin responsive family member, AlaAT, AspAT (aspartate aminotransferase), RuBisCo small subunit for expression profiling with qRT-PCR. In root, genes encoding alanine fermentation, pentose phosphate pathway, jasmonate regulation, flavonoid biosynthesis, nitrogen metabolism, delineating proteins of the root cortex, ethylene, lignin biosynthesis, cell wall loosening and cell elongation were up-regulated in tolerant CML 425 but down-regulated in susceptible V 372. In shoot, seven genes encoding lignin biosynthesis and cell wall digestibility, auxin responsive, flavonoid biosynthesis, ethylene formation, delineating proteins of the root cortex, protein kinases, cell wall loosening and cell elongation were up-regulated in tolerant but down-regulated in susceptible genotype. These candidate genes play important role in waterlogging tolerance and will be useful for marker-assisted selection to develop tolerant maize hybrids.

 

Development of agronomically promising sh2sh2/su1su1- based sweet corn inbreds: Sweet corn inbreds with sh2sh2/su1su1 genetic constitution has been developed. These inbreds possess higher brix value than the conventionally bred sh2sh2 and su1su1inbreds. Promising inbreds with high seed germination and good tassel- and plant-characteristics have been selected for their utilization in the sweet corn breeding programme.

Marker assisted incorporation of drought tolerance in rice varieties

 

Development of promising waxy corn inbreds for diverse end-uses: Several waxy inbreds with wx1wx1 genetic constitution have been developed. Traditional maize kernels possess ~30% amylose and ~70% amylopectin. Waxy maize kernels contain ~100% amylopectin which is used for diverse purposes including industrial applications. These newly developed waxy inbreds possess desirable agronomic characteristics and grain yield potential. The kernels can be easily differentiated from the wild type and opaque2 kernels using light box test.

Development of promising waxy corn inbreds for diverse end-uses

 

Pearl millet genotypes with Cream/white coloured grain: Special emphasis on development of white grain material was laid and 1016 lines of white grain colour were developed and evaluated.

Pearl millet genotypes with Cream/white coloured grain

 

Molecular Diversity studies in pearl millet genotypes with high grain iron content:An association mapping panel comprising 130 pearl millet genotypes including two checks for high grain Fe content (ICMB 98222 and Dhanshakti) were evaluated in alpha lattice design with 3 replications at 3 locations (Indian Agricultural Research Institute farm, New Delhi, Regional Research Center of IARI, Dharwad, Karnataka and Regional Station of NBPGR, Jodhpur, Rajasthan) during kharif, 2014 and 2015 for grain Fe and Zn content. The same set was genotyped with 115 SSR markers to understand diversity at the molecular level.

Molecular Diversity studies in pearl millet genotypes with high grain iron content

 

Biofortification in pearl millet:
Development of pearl millet cultivars with elevated levels of micronutrients is one of the approaches to provide sustainable solution to various health problems associated with micronutrients malnutrition, especially in India. Efforts have been initiated at IARI, to develop high iron and zinc parental lines, and thus to develop biofortified hybrids to achieve this goal.

Three breeding lines PPMI 903, PPMI 904 and PPMI 906 were found to possess stable high iron and high zinc content across different locations namely- Coimbatore, Delhi, Durgapura, Gwalior, Hisar, Jamnagar, Ludhiana, Mandor and Tirupati in 2013 and in different years (2012-13 and 2013-14) at IARI, New Delhi  in comparison to ICTP 8203 (Fe – 79 ppm; Zn – 61ppm) which is the check variety.

Biofortification in pearl millet

 

Screening Of chickpea land races: 177 land races obtained from ICARDA representing fifty seven countries of the West Asia and North Africa (WANA) region were extensively screened for yield and Fusarium wilt. ILC 0 from Lativia has shown resistance to foc 4 and foc 5 races of wilt. Two land races viz., IG 6003 and IG 5982 had 100-seed weight of 51g under normal sown conditions. Some of the lines, FLIP 87-8C, FLIP 93-58C, FLIP 86-5C, FLIP 84-92C and FLIP 87-45C, produced higher yield than the local check Pusa1108 and found promising under late sown condition.

Screening Of chickpea land races

 

Genetic structure and diversity analysis of the primary gene pool of chickpea using SSR markers: Members of the primary gene pool of chickpea, including 38 accessions of Cicer arietinum, 6 of C. reticulatum and 4 of C. echinospermum, were investigated using 100 SSR markers to analyze their genetic structure, diversity and relationships. We found considerable diversity in them with a mean of 4.8 alleles per locus (range from 2 to 11). The polymorphic information content ranged from 0.040 to 0.803 with a mean of 0.536. Most of the diversity was confined to the wild species which had higher values of polymorphic information content, gene diversity and heterozygosity than the cultivated species. An unrooted neighbor-joining tree, principal coordinate analysis and population structure analysis revealed differentiation between the cultivated accessions and the wild species. Better understanding of the structure, diversity and relationships within and among the members of the primary gene pool will contribute to more efficient identification, conservation and utilization of chickpea germplasm for allele mining, association genetics, mapping and cloning gene(s) and applied breeding to broaden the genetic base of cultivated chickpea.

Genetic structure and diversity analysis of the primary gene pool of chickpea using SSR markers

 

Evaluation of Chickpea Lines for Protein Content and Hydration Capacity Evaluation of protein content and hydration capacity in chickpea varieties indicated that there was significant variation for seed protein concentration and it ranged from 19.61% (Pusa 2024) to 25.09% (Pusa 1003). Hydration capacity increased with increased seed size. Protein content of desi varieties was higher than the kabuli types whereas hydration capacity of kabuli types was higher than desi types.

 

Resistance sources for Collatotrichum blight disease in chickpea identified: Chickpea genotypes Avarodhi, GCP 101, T-2, ICCX 930024 and FLIP 87-59C were moderately resistant to Collatotrichum blight at Dharwad.

 

High grain iron and zinc lentil line L 4704 registered with NBPGR: The germplasm line possesses high grain Fe (136.91 mg/kg grain) and Zn (71.69 mg/kg grain).The plants are erectand height ranges 40-44 cm, days to 50% flowering ranges from 70-74 with maturity duration of 130-135 days.The 100 seed weight of L 4704 is 2.5 grams. Seed testa colour is brown and pattern of seed testa is dotted in nature along with orange red cotyledon. Number of pods per plant rages between 160-165 with a single plant yield of 6.0 to 6.5 gms.

High grain iron and zinc lentil line L 4704 registered with NBPGR

 

MAS for white rust and quality traits in Indian mustard: Molecular markers linked to white rust and oil quality traits were validated. Marker At2g36360 reported linked to white rust in Donskaja was found polymorphic between Donskaja and Pusa Mastard 24/Pusa Mastard 30. The marker At5g41560 reported linked to white rust in BEC-144 and Heera, was found polymorphic only between  BEC 144 and recipient parents PM24/ PM30, while it was monomoprphic between Heera and PM24/ PM30. The SNP 591 and SNP 1265of Fae1.1 were found polymorphic between parents having high and low erucic acid content, whereas, for Fae1.2 gene SNP 237 found to differentiate low and  high erucic acid.  These SNPs were converted into CAPs marker for their utilization in breeding program.

Several molecular markers having linkage with total glucosinolate content in Brassica were reported. Markers contributing major phenotypic variation viz GRE1, GRE5, At5g101, At5gAJ30, At5g41, At5g67, Myb28 were used for parental polymorphism.  These markers will be used for foreground selection to develop double low high yielding genotypes. A total of 276 SSR markers located on different chromosome were used for study the polymorphism among recipient and donor parents.  Out of these 54 markers were found polymorphic (20%). To introgress white rust resistance in high oil quality genotypes BC1F1  populations were generated   from crosses PM30/ Donskaja//PM30 and PM24/ Donskaja//PM24.  The foreground selection was done in both the backcross populations using the At2g36360 marker. Plants from both these populations possessing Donskaja allele were also analyzed for Fae1.1 and Fae1.2 alleles imparting erucic acid.  These plants were selected and back crossed again with the respective recipient parents viz., PM 30 and PM 24.  For development of double low genotypes, two backcross populations were generated i.e. PM30/PDZ1//PM30 and PM24/ PDZ1//PM24. These populations are being analyzed for low glucosinolate trait linked markers.
 

Effect of cytoplasms and genetic backgrounds of parental lines on fertility restoration in Indian mustard hybrids: Isonuclear alloplasmic cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines with Moricandia arvensis (mori), Diplotaxis erucoides (eru), D. berthautii (ber) cytoplasms were developed in the six diverse genetic backgrounds of Brassica juncea (NPJ 112, NPJ 139, LES 1-27, SEJ 8, EC 308575 and Pusa Agarni). To assess the effect of sterile cytoplasms and nuclear backgrounds of parental lines (A & R) on fertility restoration, crosses were attempted between these 18 CMS lines with six restorers possessing fertility restorer gene from M. arvensis. Comparison of the mean percent pollen fertility in  108 single cross hybrids (36 hybrids in each cytoplasm) revealed that the hybrids based on mori cytoplasm were significantly different from the ones possessing ber and eru cytoplasms. Paired comparisons of the mean pollen fertility (%) of hybrids revealed that pollen fertility in hybrids was influenced by the genetic backgrounds of parents. However, this effect was not consistent for any cytoplasm or nuclear background of parent. Regression analyses involving per cent pollen fertility and seed set in the hybrids, both under open and self pollinated conditions, did not observe any significant association. Despite low pollen fertility, in some genetic backgrounds of hybrids developed from eru and ber sterile cytoplasms, the seed set was observed normal which indicates that the new sterility inducing cytoplasms i.e. eru and ber can be used for exploitation of heterosis in Indian mustard.

 

Anther culture of Glycine max (Merr.): Effect of media on callus induction and organogenesis: An attempt was made to study the effect of different media on callus induction and plant regeneration in anther culture in soybean. Association between bud size and pollen development stage was also ascertained to identify suitable size of floral buds before in vitro culture of excised anthers. The buds of size (2.0-3.0 mm) containing microspores at uni-nucleate stage were most responsive for anther culture and organogenesis. Three soybean genotypes, namely, JS 335, SL 958 and SL 688 were cultured on B5 medium supplemented with different concentrations of plant growth regulators, sucrose and organic compounds for callus formation and organogenesis. Combination of 10.0 mg l-1BAP and 0.5 mg l-1 BAP supplemented with 90 g l-1 sucrose and 10% v/v of coconut water in B5 medium was found best medium for callus induction (64.11%) (Figure 4).Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 2.0 mg l-1 BAP + 1.0 mg l-1thidiazuron gave shoot bud-like structures, in contrast B5 medium promoted only root organogenesis (3.30-10.90%). Anther derived callus was confirmed through flow cytometry and root tip cell of anther callus derived roots were confirmed to be haploid through  root tip staining (chromosome number n= 20).

Anther culture of Glycine max (Merr.): Effect of media on callus induction and organogenesis

Anther culture of Glycine max (Merr.): Effect of media on callus induction and organogenesis

 

Screening of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill.] genotypes for somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration potential: The study was carried out to identify the soybean genotypes with high potential to respond to in vitro culture for plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis (SE).  Total 22 soybean genotypes were screened to evaluate the capacity of embryo initiation, differentiation, maturation and plantlet conservation using standardized protocols. Among genotypes, Bragg was most responsive to induction (with 91.11% and av. 38.40 embryos/ callus mass), proliferation (89.47%) and differentiation (78.95%); however, SL 688 gave the highest maturation frequency (91.57%). Highest SE germination was recorded in SL 525 (85.67%): whereas, highest survival was observed in JS 335 (82.22%). Genotype Pusa 37 gave the poor response. Fifteen genotypes which were identified as responsive were Bragg, Bragg-Palampur, Pusa 5, Pusa 12, Pusa 14, Pusa 16, Pusa 24, Pusa 40, Pusa 9814, SL 688, SL 525, SL 979, SL 958, DS 2706 and DS 2708.

 

Screening and identification of resistance sources against Cowpea mild mottle virus disease in soybean: In the present study 133 genotypes of soybean were screened and three sources of resistance against CPMMV were identified. The resistance was confirmed by sap inoculation and the presence of the virus was also confirmed through RT-PCR by designing primer specific to coat protein gene and NaBp of CPMMV (Fig. 3). The virus was confirmed through electron microscopy. Three genotypes DS12-5 (19.08%), SL 958 (20.18%) and SL 900 (20.54%) were identified as moderately resistant. On Sap inoculation these lines did not develop any mottling symptoms whereas the susceptible genotype (JS335) showed severe symptoms of leaf mottling.

Screening and identification of resistance sources against Cowpea mild mottle virus disease in soybean

 

Drosophila Genetics: Over expression and knockdown  ofDWnt6 and DWnt10 in DWnt4AL7, wgRF7and wg1mutant background: DWnt4AL7 homozygotes die at late embryonic stages. Cuticle preparations of DWnt4AL7 homozygotes revealed the reduced denticle size of 6 rows. There was no change in polarity or orientation of denticle rows. We conjectured that DWnt6 and DWnt 10 genes might possibly show a phenotype or evidence of any linked biological function when studied in a genetic background where either wg or DWnt4 are non-functional or their proteins are altered in a significant manner. The denticles of DWnt4AL7331 homozygotes revert to the wild type size when DWnt6 and DWnt10 were over expressed.

Drosophila Genetics

Drosophila Genetics: Over expression and knockdown ofDWnt6 and DWnt10 in DWnt4AL7, wgRF7and wg1mutant background

 

The present project is focused on studying the interaction between four Wnt genes located on second chromosome in Drosophila melanogaster.  Only wingless gene has been studied in details in Drosophila andfor other three genes namely DWnt4, DWnt6 and DWnt10 very little information is available. We have isolated 6 mutants in DWnt4 gene using EMS mutagenesis. One can also look at the functions of DWnt6 and DWnt10 in wingless and/or DWnt4 sensitized background as no mutant alleles are present in DWnt6 and DWnt10.DWnt4AL7-UAS-DWnt6-hs-Gal4 and DWnt4AL7-UAS-DWnt10-hs-Gal4 embryos showed a rescue of the DWnt4AL7mutant phenotype (Bahmani, et.al, 2015). We here checked expression of Wgand Arm in the embryos of DWnt4AL7 where DWnt6 or DWnt10 is over expressed. The non GFP embryos were collected and used for immunostaining. There was no expression of wingless observed after over expressing DWnt6 and DWnt10 in DWnt4AL7 mutant background.

DWnt4AL7-UAS-DWnt6-hs-Gal4 embryos, Arm expression was present but it is reduced, while DWnt4AL7-UAS-DWnt10-hs-Gal4 Arm expression was as good aswild type. DWnt4 has been reported to haverole in ovarian sheath morphogenesis,but the mutants isolatedin our lab showed no defects in ovariesSo we created germline clones of DWnt4AL7mutant and found that individual germarium were able to grow only till stage 6 of oogenesis, compared to wild type.