Accomplishments

FRUIT CROP(S):
TEMPERATE FRUITS
Root Stocks

  • Malus baccata (Shillong) – Pusa Seb Mulvrint –1 identified- an indigenous root stock of apple with high grafting success, easy propagation and resistance to root rot, powdery mildew and wooly aphid
  • Malus sieboldii identified an apple rootstock requiring minimum chilling hours
  • Malus zumi identified as powdery mildew resistant root stock for apple
  • Prunus japonica (Prunus persica Japan) identified as dwarfing root stock for stone fruits resulting in early fruiting of apricot and almond
  • Prunus cornuta identified better root stock  of Cherry than P. cerasoides
  • Pyrus pyrifolia identified more vigorous root stock for Bartlett pear than Pyrus pashia and Pyrus pashia kumaonii.
  • Pyrus calleryana identified as high yielding root stock for Bartlett pear
  • Myrobalan–B exhibits more graft success with Satsuma and Santa Rosa cultivars of plum than Prunus salicina and P. armeniaca
  • Prunus japonica standardized as a dwarfing rootstock for apricot, peach, plum, almond and cherry in addition to use as an ornamental shrub. It gave fruiting in the same year after grafting. The trial is under progress.

Fruit Breeding

  • Apple varieties developed: Pusa Amartara Pride (Royal Delicious X Prima) : Large fruit size, more T.S.S.
  • Pusa Gold (Golden Delicious X Tydemann’s Early Worcestor): Golden fruits with red blush, early maturity
  • Walnut high yielding variety developed: Pusa Khor : Fruiting after two years of grafting, lateral bearer,  better suited for high density plantation.
  • Strawberry varieties  developed for early fruiting: Jutogh Special, Shimla Delicious
  • Kiwi varieties evaluated: Bruno for lower altitude and Hayward for higher altitude

Integrated Disease management

  • Docynia hookeriana, Malus sikkimensis,M.orientale,M.purpurea,M.floribunda identified collar rot resistant stocks.
  • Malus baccata, M.floribunda, Pyrus pashia, Prunus cerasoides idnetified partially resistant stocks for root rot.
  • Cretaegus oxycantha, Docynia hookeriana, Malus sikkimensis, Prunus cerasoides, P.nepaulensis, Pyrus pashia var. Kumaonii, P.pashia identified powdery mildew resistant stocks
  • Soil amandment with Trichoderma viride resulted in healthy nurseries
  • Standardized duplex PCR for the detection of apple viruses i.e. Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus, Apple mosaic virus and internal control.
  • Standardized RT-PCR protocol for detection of Apple Stem Pitting Virus.

Cultural Practices

  • Easy propagation of Pyrus pashia and Mallus baccata through root cuttings of 10.X 2.2 cm in rainy season without any treatment.
  • Etiolation prior to stooling increased rooting in Prunus.
  • Bottom heating propagation tray designed to induce rooting in hard wood cuttings to save time and space.
  • Kiwi propagation technique developed by treating hardwood with 3000 ppm  IBA and planting in beds of saw dust + sand + cowdung manure covered with plastic sheets.
  • Light summer prunning in one month interval with application of CPPU/Sitofix @ 10 ppm as fruit dip for 10 seconds for 10 days after anthesis  increased yield in Kiwi.
  • 1.1% nitrogen  fertilizers reduced  if orchard floor is grown with  clover.
  • Designed a prototype of bottom heating propagation tray for inducing rooting in hardwood cuttings of kiwi, pomegranate, apple, pear etc. to economize time and space.
  • Apricot varieties Sakarpara, Suffaida Oblonga, St. Ambriose, Charmagz, Nari Kinnaur and Kaisha Kinnaur were rated the best in organoleptic tests and suitable for drying purposes because of high T.S.S. and high dry matter content.
  • Organic production package for apple nursery initiated. Among the three treatments given viz. FYM, Vermicompost and Fortified compost (Bacillus spp, Pseudomonas spp, Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus awamori, Trichoderma viride and Phanerocheate chrysosporium).
  • The Regional Station maintained a collection of temperate pome and stone fruits as a field gene bank. It comprises of 38 Malus species, 14 Prunus species, 7 Pyrus species. Besides, there is a collection of 23 apricot, 15 pears, 69 apples, 96 strawberry, 15 of cherry, 12 of peach and 6 cultivars of Chinese gooseberry. One Kagzi type walnut identified from Farmer’s field and One dwarfing rootstock for temperate stone fruits also multiplied and maintained in field gene bank.

Cereal Crops
Wheat: NP 770,  NP 809, NP 818, NP 829, Ridley, Girija, Shailja, HS 86, HS 207, HS 240, HS 277, HS 295, HS 365, HS 375, HS 420, HS 490 and HS 507.  Salient features of recent wheat variety is summarized below:
HS 507 (Pusa Suketi): Released by CVRC for its commercial cultivation under timely sown irrigated and rain fed condition of Northern Hills Zone. The variety has shown substantial grain yield superiority over checks with average grain yield of 4.68 t/ha under irrigated and 2.66 t/ha under rain fed condition of northern hills zone. It combines very high adult plant resistance against leaf and stripe rusts along with good resistance against leaf blight and Karnal bunt. The variety has amber and semi hard grain with 41g test weight.
Barley:  NP 100, Kailash, Himani, BHS 46, BHS 169, BHS 352, BHS 380 and BHS 400. Salient features of recent barley varieties are summarized below:
BHS 380 (Pusa Losar): The first variety in the hills released for dual purpose, meeting both food and fodder requirements of hill farmers. Fodder is major problem in hills under severe winter condition and this variety has average fodder yield of 6.0 t/ha with average grain yield of 2.1 t/ha. It has resistance against leaf and stripe rusts.
BHS 400 (Pusa Sheetal): Released by CVRC for timely sown rainfed conditions of Northern Hills Zone. BHS 400 produced an average grain yield of 3.27 t/ha which was 5.96 % higher than the best check VLB 118, 12.9% and 41.7% higher than the barley varieties UPB 1008 and BHS 352, respectively under rainfed conditions. It has shown resistance to stripe rust.
Genetics of rust resistance: A genetic analysis of stripe rust resistance in  wheat ‘Yr’ tester lines, namely, Chinese 166 (Yr1), Heines VII (Yr2), Vilmorin (Yr3), Opal (Yr4b), T. spelta album (Yr5), Peko (Yr6), Compare (Yr8), Riebesel 47/51 (Yr9) and Moro (Yr10), against the Indian pathotypes, suggested many additional genes other than known ‘Yr’ genes. Thus, these differentials could be single gene lines against European races, but against Indian pathotypes they possessed many undetected resistance genes.
Strategic research for developing pre –breeding genetic stocks: Pre – breeding genetic stocks are developed, registered with NBPGR and are being used for wheat improvement in Northern Hills Zone.

  • WBM 1587: Resistance source against stripe rust.
  • WBM 1591: Resistance source against stripe rust.
  • HS 424: Resistant against all the prevalent pathotypes of leaf and stem rusts.
  • HS 431: Resistant against all the prevalent pathotypes of leaf and stem rusts.
  • HS 492: Resistant against leaf rust.
  • HS 491: Biscuit quality.
  • BHS 369: Stripe rust resistance.