Last Updated: 20 August 2016
1. Production and distribution of high quality seeds
- Production and distribution of high quality seeds from the station has brought name and fame to the Institute. “Pusa Beej” has become a symbol of quality. It helped in improving visibility of the Institute.
- Nucleus, breeder and labeled (Pusa Beej) seed of more than 100 varieties of about 33 different field and vegetable crops were produced at the Station. Strict quality control measures were followed to produce seed of highest quality. Total seed production during 2003-2013 at the station was 4171.4 t. A total of 1254.6 t of, breeder seed of different crop varieties 36.4 t nucleus seed of different field and vegetable crops and a total of 2880.4 t of IARI seed of different crop varieties of cereals, pulses, oil seeds, forages and vegetables was produced.
- Grow-out Testof nucleus, breeder and labeled seed was conducted every year as an internal quality control measure for monitoring and improving seed quality.
2. Refinement in Maintenance Breeding Procedure
- The nucleus seed production procedure was modified in self-pollinated crops like wheat, rice etc. to achieve high degree of genetic purity. The ear/panicle-rows are grown surrounded by breeder seed crop of the same variety to avoid genetic contamination from other varieties.
- In rice basmati varieties, cooking test was integrated with field screening of panicle progenies. This improved acceptability of basmati varieties like PB 1 and PB 1121 in the national and international market.
- Marker assisted maintenance breeding was initiated in Improved PB 1 (Pusa 1460) in collaboration with the Division of Genetics, IARI, New Delhi to ensure the presence of BLB resistant genes xa13 & Xa 21.
3. Association in Development of Varieties
||Pusa Basmati 1121, Improved PB 1, PB 6, Pusa Basmati 1509, Pusa 6 (Pusa 1612)
||HD 2687, HD 2733, HD 2824, HD 2894, HD 2932, HD 2967, HD 2985, HD 2987, HS 375, HS 420, HS 490 (Pusa Baker), HS 507, HD 3043, HD 3059, HD 3086 (Pusa Gautami), HS 542 (Pusa Kiran)
||BHS 352, BHS 380, BHS 400 (Pusa Sheetal)
||Pusa Mustard 21, PM 24, PM 25, PM 26, PM 28, PM 29, PM 30
||Hybrids/varieties in carrot (Pusa Vasuda), cucumber (Pusa Barkha), onion (Pusa Riddhi) and faba bean (Pusa Udit)
4. Farmer’s Participatory Seed Production
Farmer’s Participatory Seed Production under ICAR Mega Seed Project was started in Rabi 2006-07. As a result availability of seed at the station has more than doubled. The seed production plots under Farmer’s Participatory Seed Production programme also served as demonstration of seed production technology at farmer’s fields so as to improve quality of farmers – saved – seed.
5. Participation in Multi-location Testing of Advanced Breeding Lines of Wheat
Every year a set of three to four Common Varietal Trials of wheat was conducted. Based on performance in these trials promising lines were entered in the coordinated trials.
6. Commercialization of Pusa RH 10
IARI signed MoU with IFSSA (Indian Foundation Seed and Services Association) and several national and multinational companies to commercialize world’s first superfine, long grain aromatic rice hybrid. The Institute collected a royalty of more than Rupees one crore during 2007-08 and 2008-09. Breeder seed of parental lines of rice hybrid Pusa RH 10 was supplied from the station to IFSSA and various National & Multinational Seed Companies.
7. DUS testing
- DUS Test Centre (Rice), IARI RS, Karnal under Central Sector Scheme for Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers’ Rights Authority has characterized 441 RCVs (Reference Collection of Varieties) of rice as per DUS guidelines.
- DUS testing of 4 candidate varieties (with 14 reference varieties) and GOT of two farmers varieties was conducted during Kharif 2013.
8. Research Achievements
Studies on agronomic requirements in seed production of diverse field crops
- In Paddy Pusa Basmati 1121, the days to flowering reduced progressively with delay in planting from June 25 to July 30.
- Keeping the standing water conditions for 15-30 days after transplanting followed by irrigation three days after disappearance of ponding water resulted in saving of 20-23 per cent of irrigation water without any detrimental effect on seed yield and quality of scented rice (Pusa Basmati 1, P. Sugandha 3 & P. Sugandha 4).
- In Paddy Pusa Sugandh 4, there was significant reduction in seed weight/panicle and seed yield by 29.7 and 59.4%, respectively in July 23rd and 30th transplanting as compared to June 25 transplanting.
- Seed yield of Pusa Basmati 1 and Pusa Sugandh 4 remained at par between organic treatments and recommended fertilizer application.
- Among the different gaps studied, nicking was appropriate between four to eight days gap between female parent (Pusa 6A) and male parent (PRR 78) of PRH 10, under Karnal conditions.
- Paddy cv. Pusa Basmati 1 recorded maximum days to 50 % flowering in 22 June transplanting. The yield reduced by 19.2, 37.2 and 47.01% when transplanting was done on 16th, 24th and 1st August. Seed yield increased significantly up to 100 kg N/ha and with 20x15cm2 spacing.
- SRI technique is a promising technique for raising weed free and healthy nursery in rice by using old gunny bags has been found less labour consuming, enhances seedling growth, minimizes weed competition and is economical than the conventional method.
- Seed yield under FYM @ 10 ton/ha (both SRI and Conventional), green manuring, and recommended fertilizer remained statistically at par indicating that comparable yields of scented rice can be obtained after four years of organic treatments.
- Direct seeded crop of PRH 10 flowered 11 and 21 days earlier than SRI and Conventional method. Seed yield under direct seeded rice and SRI was 29.5 and 17.6% higher than conventional method.
- There was 24 to 47 % reduction in yield of scented rice Pusa 1460 when transplanting was delayed from July 16 to August 1 respectively compared to June 22.
- Seed yield increased significantly up to 100 kg N/ha and there was 44.9% increase in yield compared to control. Seed yield was significantly higher with 20x15 cm2 spacing than 30x15 cm2 and at par with 15x15 and 25x15cm2 spacings.
- Farm yard manure treatment out yielded green manuring and chemical fertilizers in PRH 10, Pusa Basmati 1121 and Improved Pusa Basmati 1 and recorded 19.6 and 23.6 % higher yield than green manuring and recommended fertilizers. Pusa Basmati 1121 was found more suitable under SRI compared to Improved Pusa Basmati 1 and PRH10.
- In Berseem seed production technology, seed yield remained at par when one to three cuts were taken before leaving the crop for seed; however there was significant reduction in seed yield after taking four to five cuts across the sowing dates.
- In Berseem seed production technology, green forage yield was reduced to 38.4 and 59.1% when sowing was delayed to 15th and 25th November compared to 25th October.
- Among the herbicides, Clodinafop-propargyl 15 WP (Topic) and different doses of clodinafop+metsulfuron @ 45+3g, 54+3.6g and 60+4g significantly reduced the density of Phalaris minor over weed check and metsulfuron methyl 20WP.
- Pyrazosulfuron at 25 g/ha applied 3 DAT, sequential application of Clomazone and 2,4-D and Fenoxaprop fb 2,4-D recorded significantly lower weed dry weight and higher weed control efficiency than butachlor and weedy check.
- Among the herbicides, Cyclophop butyl + metsulfuron methyl, butachlore + metsulfuron @ 80 +4g, 1500+4g significantly reduced the density of mixed weed population over weed check. Clodinafop propargyl 15 WP was found ineffective against broadleaf weeds whereas Metsulfuron methyl 20WP alone @ 6 g efficiently controlled the broadleaf weeds.
- Two sprays of Panchkavya at 30 and 60 days after sowing improved the yield attributes and seed yield of wheat cv. HD2851.
- Sulfosulfuron at 25g/ha alone was less effective towards the control of Rumex maritimus compared to Carfentrazone alone. Premix formulation (WDG and WP) of Carfentrazone+ Sulfosulfuron 45, 54 and 90 g/ha recorded higher weed control efficiency than Carfentrazone ethyl alone in wheat. Seed yield at carfentrazone + sulfosulfuron at 45 and 54 g/ha under WDG and WP formulation recorded 30.9, 34.7 and 34.7 and 31.2 percent higher seed yield than weedy check respectively.
- Carfentrazone 20g/ha and Metsulfuron 4 g/ha controlled 83.7 and 84.1 percent of broadleaf weeds respectively and increased the seed yield significantly over other treatments in wheat.
- Highest seed yield was recorded with 10th July transplanting and 80-100kg N/ha in paddy Pusa Basmati 1509. Seed quality was not affected by transplanting dates and nitrogen.
- Onion bulb yield was significantly superior in vermicompost 5ton/ha + 50% RD of NPK/ha to FYM 5ton + 2.5ton/ha vermicompost + 25%NPK and control.
- In seed crop of onion FYM 5ton/ha+75 % RD of NPK and vermicompost 5ton/ha+50% RD of NPK were the best INM treatments. Seed quality was not affected due to INM treatments over control.
- In paddy PB 1509, Pretilachlor 650 and 750g/ha and byspyribac –Na recorded lower weed dry weight and seed yield at par with weed free treatment.
- In wheat tank mix of Pinoxaden + carfentrazone and clodinafop + carfentrazone were found compatible for weed control and recorded significantly higher yield than control.
- FYM 5ton+75% RD of NPK and vermicompost 5ton+50% RD of NPK recorded 28.7 and 27.5 % higher forage yield than control in berseem without affecting seed yield and quality.
Integrated Pest Management in Breeder Seed Crops
- Integration of fungicides (Thiram, Captan and Carboxin) with fungal bioagents (Trichoderma harzianum, T. viride and Pseudomonas fluorescence) was effective in the improvement of seedling emergence and reduction in wilt incidence in the field in gram.
- Seed germination of inbred lines in paddy (IR 58025A & IR 58025B) was above MSCS (80%) up to 60 months of storage after seed harvest when stored under controlled environment (Temperature=20°C; Humidity=40%) as against 24 months under ambient storage.
- Breeder seed of different crop varieties were assessed for their health status by blotter technique. The fungal infection usually ranged from 1 to 7 %. Maximum fungal infestation was with Alternaria alternata followed by Aspergillus flavus, Rhizopus sp. and Cladosporium sp. Cucurbitaceous seed had high fungal infection whereas tomato seeds were usually found free of any fungal infection.
- Treatment with CDC Smoke reduced the fungal load on paddy seed effectively when flushed for both 30 min and 60 min durations as against CO2 alone under hermetic conditions.
- 88% control of die-back disease was obtained in cowpea cv. C-152 by foliar application of copper oxychloride fungicide.
- Out of 26 seed treatments in paddy, nine were found significantly superior to untreated control in improving both seed germination and field emergence. Dry seed treatment was equally effective and gave significantly higher germination and vigour in the lab and had less incidence of mycoflora. Soaking time did not influence lab germination but 12 h soaking gave better field emergence in all the treatments.
- Foliar application with two sprays of Bavistin @ 0.25% and one spray of Bavistin + Trichoderma viride were found to effectively control bakanae disease in the field in Paddy cv. P-1121.
- Bakanae disease incidence in Paddy variety Pusa Basmati 1121 was minimum in soil amended with FYM+Trichoderma viride followed by soil amended with only Trichoderma viride as against untreated soil. Nursery raised from Bavistin treated seed gave significantly low incidence of disease as against nursery raised from untreated seed.
- Foliar application of Tilt/Vitavax was most effective in the control of Karnal bunt disease in wheat variety HD 2687.
- Seed treatment with Captan @ 0.2%+ Streptocycline @ 100ppm was more effective than Streptocycline alone and two foliar sprayings with Contaf @ 0.2% effectively controlled sheath blight disease in paddy.
- Kocide 2000 @ 262.5 g a.i./ha, 350 g a.i./ha, 437.5 g a.i./ha and Blitox-50 were found highly effective and at par in controlling the anthracnose disease in chilli plants, increasing the plant growth and fruit yield and showed no phytotoxicity effect.
- Among different insecticides evaluated against okra jassid, A. devastans, Thiodicarb 75wp @ 750g/ha, Profenofos 50EC @1500ml/ha and Emamectin benzoate 5SG @200g/ha were found quite effective in controlling the jassid.
- Amongst different insecticides, Thiamethoxam @ 20g/acre was the most effective followed by Cartap hydro 4G @ 7.5kg/acre and Indoxacarb 14.5 SL @ 200ml/acre against okra jassid Amrasca devastans and Spinosad @ 25g/acre was most effective followed by Emamectin benzoate 5SG @ 80g/acre against okra FSB Earias spp at shoot stage.
- Econeem 3000 ppm @ 2.5, 5.0ml and Econeem 10,000ppm @ 2.5ml/kg seed besides, Deltamethrin @ 1.0 ppm effectively protected wheat seeds against storage insect pests for a period of six months without adversely affecting the seed viability.
- Flubendiamide 480SC @ 125g/ha, Spinosad 45SC @ 137.5ml/ha, Emamectin benzoate 5SG @ 200g/ha and Acetamiprid 20SP @150g/ha were found quite effective in controlling the borer.
- Spinosad @, 137.5ml, Flubendiamide 125g, Thiodicarb 750g, Emamectin benzoate 200g and Ecetamiprid 150g/ha were found quite effective against brinjal fruit and shoot borer Leucinodes orbonalis.
- Thiodicarb @ 750g, acetamiprid @ 150g and carbosulfan @ 1000ml.ha were quite effective in controlling the jassid Amrasca devastans in brinjal.
- Thiodicarb @ 750g, Profenofos @ 1500ml, Acetamiprid @150g and Carbosulfan @ 1000ml/ha were quite effective in controlling the aphid Aphis gossypii in brinjal.
- Flushing with cow dung cake (CDC) smoke for half an hour in air tight earthen pots after 10 minutes of vacuuming and with smoke exposure period of 12 hr showed hundred per cent mortality of pulse beetle C. maculatus in gram seeds and when CDC smoke was flushed for one hour with 20 minutes of vacuuming, mortality of the pulse beetle hastened and there was 100% mortality even after one hour of treatment and there was no adverse effect on germination, vigour and electrical conductivity of the seed.
- Flushing with CDC plus 100g-neem leaf smoke for half an hour gave better mortality of the rice weevil as compared to cow dung smoke alone. Mortality was 88 and 93 per cent after 4 and 8 days of smoke exposure without affecting the germination, vigour and electrical conductivity of the paddy seed.
- Out of 8 paddy varieties evaluated for false smut infection in field, highest percent false smut infection was observed in PS 5 (17.6) followed by PB 6 (10.8), PB 1 (4.4) and P 44 (3.7). PB 1121, PB 1509, PS 2 and PS 3 had nil infection.
- Out of 10 fungicides tested in paddy cvs. PS 5 and PB 6 against false smut disease in the field, copper fungicides as kocide (0.0% in PS 5 and 1.04% in PB 6) and blitox (0.53% in PS 5 and 1.20% in PB 6) treatments were most effective in control of the disease as against control (11.12% in PS 5 and 9.04% in PB 6) based on infected tillers in the field.
- Effect of Fusarium moniliforme (causal organism of Bakanae disease) was evaluated on five paddy varieties viz., PB- 1121, PB- 1, PB- 6, PS- 3 and Pusa- 1509. PB 1121 and PB 1509 varieties were found susceptible to bakanae disease whereas PS 5 variety was susceptible to false smut disease.
- Mechanical processing reduced the incidence of Karnal bunt disease in wheat varieties and kernel bunt disease in paddy varieties by 37 and 60%, respectively.
Up-gradation of seed quality in high value seeds
- Solid matrix priming improved emergence by 10% over control at optimum temperatures (250°C). Moreover, solid matrix priming and osmo-priming improved emergence significantly by 35% under sub-optimal temperatures (150°C) in bittergourd seed.
- Solid matrix priming + Trichoderma treated seeds had more uniform and faster emergence compared with untreated seeds in okra.
- Comparative appraisal of vegetable seed germination standards indicated that, unlike cucurbits and root crops, the prescribed IMSCS standards for solanaceous vegetables are at par with developed (except USA) & developing regions, in case of brinjal and are lower in case of tomato.
- Osmo-priming stimulated uniform seedling emergence in capsicum and solid matrix priming improved seed germination in okra cv. A-4 under suboptimal temperatures.
- Pre-germinated seeds produced seedlings with higher length, fresh weight and dry weight when harvested 25 days after sowing as compared to control in muskmelon, bittergourd and spongegourd crops.
- Number of flower pickings had profound effect on seed yield and quality of marigold cv. Pusa Narangi. Maximum flower yield of 49.27q/ha was recorded for three pickings. Higher seed yield was obtained for 2 picking treatment and seed yield started decreasing thereafter. However, test weight of the seed decreased as the number of pickings increased and maximum test weight was obtained in plots were no flower picking was done.
- Vigour tests were evaluated to predict seedling emergence in carrot.The field emergence ranged from 33.2% to 56.5%. The seedling emergence percentage of the seed lots in the field was positively and significantly correlated with standard germination (r= 0.937***), germination at non-standard temperature of 15oC (r= 0.954***) and saturated salt accelerated ageing using NaCl-RH75% (r= 0.952***). The results suggest that non- standard temperatures of 15°C and saturated salt accelerated ageing using NaCl (RH75%) can be used to predict seedling emergence of carrot seed lots in the field.
- Ten integrated nutrient management (INM) treatments were evaluated in relation to seed productivity and quality in okra. Recommended dose of fertilizer + biofertilizers (Azotobacter+PSB+VAM) + vermicompost (2.5t/ha) gave significantly higher yield. In cowpea recommended dose of fertilizer + vermicompost (2.5t/ha) gave the highest yield, germination and vigour index.
- Out of the nine sub plot treatments evaluated for integrated nutrient management (INM) for quality seed production in cowpea, recommended dose of fertilizer + vermicompost (2.5t/ha) gave the highest yield, germination and vigour index whereas there was no significant difference between the main plot treatments.
- Priming of tomato and onion seed using osmoticum (PEG 6000), KNO3. Solid matrix (vermiculite) or water soaking improved germination and speed of germination. After priming, seeds were ultra-dried over saturated solution of KOH (RH 9.0%). Primed and ultra-dried seed maintained germination above control even after 3 months of storage.
- Correlation and regression analysis suggest that electrical conductivity test followed by standard germination and vigour index I have good potential in predicting seedling emergence of garden pea seed lots.
Standardization of post harvest parameters for higher recovery of quality seeds
- Multistage seed processing in the modern facility of the station was utilized for upgrading the quality of different crop varieties, achieving 99.9% physical purity in all the crops.
- A system of stripping and threshing has been developed for Pigeonpea. Stripping operation was carried out by modified Olpad Paddy thresher and the stripped pods were threshed with developed Pulse thresher at optimized operational parameters.
- Highest puddling index was observed with rotavator followed by Pulverizing roller and Disc Harrow in paddy crop cultivation. Highest values of shoot length, root weight and shoot weight were also observed with rotavator puddled field.
Popularization of IARI bred varieties through participatory seed production and demonstration
- Participatory seed production of different field crops like paddy, wheat, mungbean, garden pea, berseem and gram was undertaken to demonstrate the technologies developed by IARI and trainings on various aspects were conducted to encourage the farmers to produce quality seed at their own fields so that seed replacement ratio can be increased.